Domari People - مردم دو ماری

Hathor, in ancient Egyptian religion is the goddess of the sky, of women, and of fertility and love.

Hathor’s worship originated in early dynastic times (3rd millennium BCE). The name Hathor means “estate of Horus” and may not be her original name.

Her principal animal form was that of a cow, and she was strongly associated with motherhood. Hathor was closely connected with the sun god Re of Heliopolis, whose “eye” or daughter she was said to be.

In her cult centre at Dandarah in Upper Egypt, she was worshipped with Horus.

There were cults of Hathor in many towns in Egypt and also abroad, for she was the patroness of foreign parts and of many minerals won from the desert.

In the Sinai turquoise mines, for example, she was called “Lady of Turquoise.” At Dayr al-Baḥrī, in the necropolis of Thebes, she became “Lady of the West” and patroness of the region of the dead.

In the Late Period (1st millennium BCE), women aspired to be assimilated with Hathor in the next world, as men aspired to become Osiris. The Greeks identified Hathor with their Aphrodite.

Re, also spelled Ra or Pra, in ancient Egyptian religion, god of the sun and creator god. He was believed to travel across the sky in his solar bark and, during the night, to make his passage in another bark through the underworld, where, in order to be born again for the new day, he had to vanquish the evil serpent Apopis (Apepi).

As one of the creator gods, he rose from the ocean of chaos on the primeval hill, creating himself and then in turn engendering eight other gods.

Originally most solar gods had falcon form and were assimilated to Horus. By the 4th dynasty (c. 2575–c. 2465 BCE), however, Re had risen to his leading position.

Many syncret-isms were formed between Re and other gods, producing such names as Re-Harakhty, Amon-Re, Sebek-Re, and Khnum-Re.

Aspects of other gods influenced Re himself; his falcon-headed appearance as Re-Harakhty originated through association with Horus.

The influence of Re was spread from On (Heliopolis), which was the centre of his worship. From the 4th dynasty, kings held the title “Son of Re,” and “Re” later became part of the throne name they adopted at accession.

As the father of Maat, Re was the ultimate source of right and justice in the cosmos.

At Thebes, by the late 11th dynasty (c. 1980 BCE), Re was associated with Amon as Amon-Re, who was for more than a millennium the principal god of the pantheon, the “king of the gods,” and the patron of kings.

The greatest development of solar religion was during the New Kingdom (1539–c. 1075 BCE). The revolutionary worship of the sun disk, Aton, during the abortive Amarna period (1353–1336 BCE) was a radical simplification of the cult of the sun.

During the New Kingdom, beliefs about Re were harmonized with those concerning Osiris, the ruler of the underworld, with the two gods syncretized in the royal mortuary texts.

The Domari have an oral tradition and express their culture and history through music, poetry and dance.

Among the various Domari subgroups, they were initialy part of Ghawazi (Al Ghawazi- Al Ghagar) whom were known for their dancing and music .

The Ghawazi dancers as have been associated with the development of their own dancing reputation and business.

Their passionate temper and irascible personality reflect their indomitable spirit.

The majority of their population live in Turkey, Egypt, Iraq and Iran. Smaller groups can be found in Afghanistan, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Sudan, Jordan, Syria and other countries of the Middle East and North Africa.

They have no concept of national sovereignty but rather identify with the ideal of a freedom which is unconnected to a birthplace or land of origin.

A legend states that in the 11th century, India was attacked by a Turko-Persian Muslim general, whose aim was to push Islam into India. As Arab non-Aryan Indian, they were conscripted as soldiers.

During the battles they headed west into Persia and stayed there at the end of the hostilities, rather than return to India. Another legend states that they fled religous tyranny and rule in India and migrated to more secular and free societies and continue to do so worldwide as they hate religion and war.

Although they stayed in Persia for a long period of time, eventually many continued to travel as far west as Armenia and Greece. Eventually, some arrived in Europe, while others went to Syria, Egypt, and North Africa and Morocco ("Maghreb") which was the furthest point they could get from Mecca at that time...

Domari is also known as "Middle Eastern Romani", "Tsigene", "Luti", or "Mehtar\Behtar".

They renamed themselves Bani Al Ghuraba’ (بنی الغربا) or (the tribe of Exile).

The Ghawazi (also ghawazee) (Egyptian Arabic: الغوازي) is a local practice describing female dancers who dance in return of money; the male version of the practice is described as "khawal".

They first started as the few Egyptian Domari who refused to play music and dance for free unlike the common habit among all Egypt, the Domari are also associated with the Romani.

Iranians called them gurbati (غربتی) or kouli, the former meaning "poor" and the latter meaning "foreigners".

Do-Mar means Two Snakes!