IMPERIAL CHINA





The Imperial China period makes up the bulk of Chinese history. With the cyclical rise and fall of dynasties, Chinese civilization was cultivated and prospered in times of peace, then reformed after rebellions and conquests. The longest imperial dynasty, the Han Dynasty, was known for starting the Silk Road trade and connecting China with Central Asia and Europe.

The Silk Road featured strongly in China's history as a gateway for trade and cultural exchange. China throughout history went from having an empire to warring kingdoms to being the most culturally sophisticated and technologically developed nation and finally, it was consumed by the rise and fall of the Mongol Empire, which stretched all the way to Germany. It wasn't a conscious decision to invade Europe, they didn't know exactly where they were heading they just headed west and destroyed everything in their way.




THE MONGOLIAN EMPIRE











After spreading disease and waiting for the sickness to pave the way, the next step is the Chinese inch their way closer year by year, usually planning very long term.


It appears after 1.5 billion of people or so, the Chinese hordes can either head east or west, if they head west usually they seem to pass through Tehran, they dont go to India because they have enough people to survive the hordes of 900 million or so hungry people that head for better lands and food...


Historically the figure for Iran was 20,000 soldiers per 24 Persian men. This is how hordes and waves and waves of people invaded the western lands and Iran. If this happens head to Kerman. If they head east, usually they might try to pass through Alaska to the Mainland, USA.


Usually they send them in waves of 300 million, after the first wave doesnt return they send the next and next... If this keeps going on then you head to Maghreb (Marakesch) which is the furthest and safest place to be.


The Europeans knew virtually nothing about the Mongols until they arrived. Describing Central Asia, a 14th century European Palace envoy to India wrote: “No such people do exist as nations, though there may be an individual monster here and there."


In the 1200s Baghdad was a prominent and rich ancient city with a high literacy rate. The House of Wisdom was a huge library in Baghdad and major intellectual center where you could find books and manuscripts about science, art and Greek literature.

It was a place where scholars came together for dialogue, discussions and discourses. By the middle of the ninth century, the House of Wisdom had the largest selection of books in the world, but everything was destroyed during the Mongol invasion led by Hulagu Khan.





This incredible ancient library was founded by Caliph Harun al-Rashid (reigned 786–809) and culminated under his son al-Ma'mun (reigned 813–833) who is credited with its formal institution.





The House of Wisdom was in fame, status, scope, size, resources, patronage, etc. similar to that of the present day British Library in London or the Nationale Bibliotheque in Paris. Not only Muslims, but also Christian and Jewish scholars met and studied at the House of Wisdom.





Hulagu Khan, (ca. 1216-1265) who was a Mongol ruler and grandson of Genghis Khan was determined to conquer Mesopotamia. Genghis Khan is still worshipped as a hero in Mongolia. Genghis Khan did not invade far into the Muslim world, but the Great Khan, Mongke, put his brother Hulagu Khan in charge of an army whose goals were to conquer Mesopotamia, Persia, Syria, and Egypt, as well as to destroy the Abbasid Caliphate.





The campaign’s goal appears to be a complete destruction of Islam. Hulagu Khan himself even had a very deep hatred for everything attached to Islam. Much of his disgust towards Muslims may have been because of his Buddhist and Christian advisors who influenced his policies. Eventually the Mongols became Muslim, it appears their first religion was a shaman based religion.





The House of Wisdom was a huge library in Baghdad and major intellectual center where you could find books and manuscripts about science, art and Greek literature.





In the autumn of 1253 Hulagu Khan left Mongolia with a huge army that successfully conquered and destroyed Muslim states in southwestern Asia. His next goal was to conquer the Lurs, Iranian people living mainly in western and south-western Iran of southern Iran, and besiege the Assassins in their primary fortress at Alamut. The Mongols used all their military power against Alamut, while also offering clemency if the Assassin leader would surrender.





On November 19, 1256, he did so. Hulagu Khan paraded the captured leader in front of all the remaining strongholds, and one by one they capitulated. The Mongols tore down the castles at Alamut and other places, so that the Assassins could not take refuge and regroup there. A satisfied Hulagu Khan focused on Baghdad, a city he saw as an ultimate trophy.





Hulagu's Mongol army set out for Baghdad in November 1257. The Mongol siege of 1258 AD began in mid-January and lasted just two weeks. On February 13, the Mongols entered the city of the caliphs, commencing a full week of pillage and destruction. Along with all other libraries in Baghdad, the House of Wisdom was destroyed by the army of Hulagu during the Siege of Baghdad.





Thousands of books from Baghdad’s House of Wisdom were thrown into the Tigris River in such quantities that the river ran black with the ink from the books. Nasir al-Din al-Tusi managed to rescue about 400,000 manuscripts which he took to Maragheh before the siege, but the great majority of all precious ancient books and manuscripts kept at the House of Wisdom were gone forever.


The greatest destruction of Muslim libraries resulted from the raids of the Mongols in the 13th century. From the mountains and steppes of central Asia came the hordes of Genghis Khan, conquering and destroying everything before them. In the first great sweep to the Caspian Sea and northern Persia, the cities of Bokhara (Bukhara), Samarkand, and Merv and their libraries were destroyed along with many smaller towns.





Part of Chinese War Tactics, as in other elements of Chinese culture are very very brutal and ruthless, during the Mongol invasion of Persia, many Iranian people were beheaded and pyramids were built with their bones, skulls and remains, the worst of crimes against humanity are which is to keep people ignorant. It is a rather cruel phenomenon that they would go to extreme lengths to keep their own libraries safe by any means necessary but destroy other people’s knowledge. Examples include the following Chinese libraries:





The Library was found in Tibet containing 84.000 secret manuscripts and untouchable books, including human history for 10.000 years. The Sakya Monastery. Perhaps the world's largest library on the planet's distant history was discovered behind a huge wall. It is 60 meters long and 10 meters tall. Surely hidden by monks in the face of the advancement of Chinese Communism of the time. The Sakya Monastery is the seat of the Sakyapa sect, one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. The monastery is 1,000 years old.

The first structure on the site was reportedly built in 1073, a thousand years ago. The monastery then grew to more than 100 buildings. But much of it was destroyed in China’s Cultural Revolution in the last decade of Mao Zedong’s rule, from 1966 to 1976.

The library holds over 40,000 texts handwritten in Tibetan, Sanskrit, Chinese and Mongolian, on a wide range of subjects such as medicine and philosophy. In 2003, monks discovered a sealed wall containing 84,000 more texts, speculated to date back several hundred years.

In another instance, just over a thousand years ago, someone sealed up a chamber in a cave outside the oasis town of Dunhuang, on the edge of the Gobi Desert in western China. The chamber was filled with more than five hundred cubic feet of bundled manuscripts. They sat there, hidden, for the next nine hundred years. When the room, which came to be known as the Dunhuang Library, was finally opened in 1900, it was hailed as one of the great archaeological discoveries of the twentieth century, on par with Tutankhamun’s tomb and the Dead Sea Scrolls.

The library was discovered by accident. In the early Middle Ages, Dunhuang had been a flourishing city-state. It had also long been famous as a center of Buddhist worship; pilgrims travelled great distances to visit its cave shrines, comprised of hundreds of lavishly decorated caverns carved into a cliff on the city’s outskirts. But by the early twentieth century, the town was a backwater, and its caves had fallen into disrepair. Wang Yuanlu, an itinerant Taoist monk, appointed himself their caretaker. One day, he noticed his cigarette smoke wafting toward the back wall of a large cave shrine. Curious, he knocked down the wall, and found a mountain of documents, piled almost ten feet high.

A Chinese scholar has argued that the Library was closed as a way of preventing sacrilege: in 1006 A.D., soon after the most recently dated document was deposited in the cave, Muslim invaders sacked the neighboring city of Khotan, burned its monasteries, and, in the words of a contemporaneous poem, “shat on the Buddha’s head.”.





Chinese culture is extremely beautiful and very very sophisticated and grand, I remember as a kid having visited the Imperial Palaces of China (The Forbidden City) and thinking they were the biggest and grandest things I had ever seen pictured above.

The Forbidden City (Chinese: 紫禁城; pinyin: Zǐjìnchéng) is a palace complex in Dongcheng District, Beijing, China, at the center of the Imperial City of Beijing. It is surrounded by numerous opulent imperial gardens and temples including the 54-acre Zhongshan Park, the sacrificial Imperial Ancestral Temple, the 171-acre Beihai Park and the 57-acre Jingshan Park.





The complex consists of 980 buildings, reportedly encompassing 9,999 rooms and covering 720,000 square metres (7,800,000 sq ft). The palace exemplifies the opulence of the residences of the Chinese emperor and the traditional Chinese palatial architecture, and has influenced cultural and architectural developments in East Asia and elsewhere.





It’s unfortunate they don’t burn incense in these Imperial grounds anymore, I remember they used to do this back in the day when I visited as a kid.





In a matter of 20 years or so, China has turned into a giant superpower. As I write this we are in the midst of a global pandemic which has been claimed to have been originated from Wuhan, China. These could all be war-time propoganda.

The below findings are very interesting as well, one should exercise caution when dealing with China, specially us Iranians, in the Book of Kings the Shahnameh (Turan) which is China is seen as Iran's greatest enemy.

I think their heaven is when they are a pacifist country they just might not know it, but they do have numerous sides, including Tibetan, Mongolian, Chinese, Mandarin, etc. so it's hard to say but either way they are a very ancient civilization.





It appears a couple of weeks before the Coronavirus pandemic researchers embarked on an expedition to retrieve the oldest ice on the planet, they were doing it to look for clues about past climate. But during the journey—to the Guliya ice cap in China’s Tibet (above)—they also found 15,000-year-old viruses—some of them new to science.

For the past 15,000 years, a glacier on the northwestern Tibetan Plateau of China has hosted a party for some unusual guests: an ensemble of frozen viruses, many of them unknown to modern science. Hopefully they didn’t create the Covid-19 virus and Coronaviruses. Unfortunately, many researchers were killed and many people have been ruthlessly tortured and murdered by the Chinese Communist Party.





Although stereo typing and not always true Chinese culture can also be very cruel and\or racist and many Chinese people think of Chinese culture and people as the most superior cultured of the world. It is their culture after all but they are also very very brave...





Although I didnt get to see The Terracotta Army, it is truly amazing. The Chinese Stone Army is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. It is a form of funerary art buried with the emperor in 210–209 BCE with the purpose of protecting the emperor in his afterlife. Not a single two statues match. The figures, dating from approximately the late third century BCE, were discovered in 1974 by local farmers in Lintong County, outside Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.





The figures vary in height according to their roles, with the tallest being the generals. The figures include warriors, chariots and horses. Estimates from 2007 were that the three pits containing the Terracotta Army held more than 8,000 soldiers, 130 chariots with 520 horses, and 150 cavalry horses, the majority of which remained buried in the pits near Qin Shi Huang's mausoleum. Other terracotta non-military figures were found in other pits, including officials, acrobats, strongmen, and musicians. Modern estimates account for more than 22,000 human sized figures.





The Terracotta Army is part of a much larger necropolis. Ground-penetrating radar and core sampling have measured the area to be approximately 98 sq. kilometers (38 sq. miles).

The necropolis was constructed as a microcosm of the emperor's imperial palace or compound, and covers a large area around the tomb mound of the first emperor. The earthen tomb mound is located at the foot of Mount Li and built in a pyramidal shape, and is surrounded by two solidly built rammed earth walls with gateway entrances. The necropolis consists of several offices, halls, stables, other structures as well as an imperial park placed around the tomb mound.





The warriors stand guard to the east of the tomb. Up to 5 metres (16 ft) of reddish, sandy soil had accumulated over the site in the two millennia following its construction, but archaeologists found evidence of earlier disturbances at the site. During the excavations near the Mount Li burial mound, archaeologists found several graves dating from the 18th and 19th centuries, where diggers had apparently struck terracotta fragments. These were discarded as worthless and used along with soil to backfill the excavations.





The Great Wall and Beijing (Peking) as it is now called was amazing too, people used to drive around in bicycle rickshaws, we got picked up in one because they told us those were Taxi's, there were no or little cars back in those days.





We almost got lost in the crowd.





As in their Martial Arts and other elements, the CHINESE PEKING OPERA is rather amazing too, they make amazing art!





China and Iran share a lot and through-out history for thousands of years have exchanged culture and other things amongst the Silk Road, below are some Persian-Chinese inspired music and art!








Below is a state visit by the Chinese Prime Minister to Iran.